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Nathan J. Graham, Joshua D. Smith, Tobias Else, and Greg J. Basura

Head and neck paragangliomas are slow-growing, vascular, typically benign tumors whose growth may induce significant lower cranial nerve deficits. While most tumors arise sporadically, a significant portion are associated with defined genetic syndromes. While surgical resection has historically been the gold standard, management strategies have evolved with acknowledgement of high surgical morbidity, slow tumor growth rates, and technological advances. Conservative management approaches via observation and newer radiation therapy techniques have become more common. This review seeks to provide an update on contemporary management strategies for head and neck paragangliomas and future directions.