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Sean McSweeney, Hannah E Bergom, Anna Prizment, Susan Halabi, Nima Sharifi, Charles Ryan, and Justin Hwang

The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway regulates the progression of prostate cancer (PC). Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients generally receive AR-targeted therapies (ART) or androgen-deprivation therapies (ADT) with the initial response; however, resistance is inevitably observed. Prior studies have shown activity and upregulation of a family of androgen production, uptake, and conversion – APUC genes – based on genomic analyses of patient germlines. Genetic variants of some APUC genes, such as the conversion gene, HSD3B1, predict response to second-generation androgen-targeted therapies. Studies have begun to elucidate the overall role of APUC genes, each with unique actionable enzymatic activity, in mCRPC patient outcomes. The current role and knowledge of the genetic and genomic features of APUC genes in advanced prostate cancer and beyond are discussed in this review. These studies inform of how interpreting behavior of APUC genes through genomic tools will impact the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.